3.7 Electrode Angles
The American Welding Society uses two terms to describe the position of the electrode, gun or torch. These terms are used throughout this book and in industry to describe the position of the electrode in relation to the material being welded. The two terms used to describe the electrode angle, or position, are the travel angle and the work angle.
3.7.1 Travel Angle
The travel angle is the angle measured from a line perpendicular to the weld axis in the plane defined by the weld axis and the electrode axis. Figure 344 shows a groove weld in the flat position. The weld axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis are shown in Figure 344A. Figure 344B adds a plane and an electrode. The plane goes through the weld axis and the electrode axis.
Figure 344C shows how the travel angle is measured. The travel angle is the angle between a line perpendicular to the weld axis and the electrode. The angle is measured in the plane containing the weld axis and the electrode axis. The travel angle shown is about 20°.
Figure 344C shows how the travel angle is measured. The travel angle is the angle between a line perpendicular to the weld axis and the electrode. The angle is measured in the plane containing the weld axis and the electrode axis. The travel angle shown is about 20°.
Figure 345. Travel angle in a fillet weld. The travel angle is measured from the electrode axis to a line perpendicular to the weld axis in the plane defined by the weld axis and the electrode axis. A—The weld axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis are shown. B—The plane determined by the weld axis and the electrode axis is shown. C—The travel angle is shown.
Figure 345 shows a fillet weld in the horizontal position. The weld axis and a line perpendicular to the weld axis are shown in Figure 345A. Figure 345B adds a plane and an electrode. The plane goes through the weld axis and the electrode axis. Figure 345C shows how the travel angle is measured. The travel angle is the angle between a line perpendicular to the weld axis and the electrode. The angle is measured in the plane containing the weld axis and the electrode axis. The travel angle shown is about 20°.
When the top of the electrode leads the welding end of the electrode, and the welding arc is pointing back toward the weld bead, the travel angle is called a drag angle or a drag travel angle. This is also known as backhand welding. If the welding end of the electrode points forward in the direction of travel, the angle is called a push angle or a push travel angle. This is also known as forehand welding.
Travel Angle of a Fillet Weld

The electrode travel angle for a fillet weld is measured in a plane defined by the weld axis and the electrode axis. In this drawing, the electrode is at a fortyfive degree angle from the base metal. The travel angle is the angle between the electrode axis and an imaginary line in the plane that is perpendicular to the weld axis. The proper travel angle for a fillet weld is typically about twenty degrees, but may range from zero to about forty degrees, depending on the application.

Travel Angle for a Groove Weld

An electrode's travel angle is measured in a plane defined by the weld axis and the electrode axis. The travel angle is the angle measured between the axis of the electrode and the axis of an imaginary line perpendicular to the weld axis. The proper travel angle for a groove weld is typically about twenty degrees, but may range from zero degrees to about forty degrees, depending on the application.
